The 25 Most Followed #FOAMed Women on Twitter

TwitterEKGWe recently published a list of the 30 Most Followed #FOAMed Twitter Users (FOAM = Free Open Access Meducation). One observation, keenly pointed out by Dr. Nikita Joshi (@njoshi8), was the lack of female representation on the list. Even more recently, Dr. Esther Choo (@choo_ek) published a blog post entitled Women in Emergency Medicine Who Give Great Talks. As a follow up to our original post, here are the most ‘followed’ women on Twitter in the FOAM world.

We are particularly interested in understanding the landscape such as who is involved, geographic locations, areas of expertise, and association with blogs/podcasts. Our search strategy was simple:

  1. Twitter was searched for all users with #FOAMed, #FOAMcc, #FOAMtox, #FOAMped, #FOAMems, #FOAM4GP, and/or #FOAM in her Twitter profile. *
  2. This was cross-referenced with Dr. Mike Cadogan’s (@sandnsurfFOAMed Twitter list (920 members as of August 29, 2014).

Most Followed FOAM Women on Twitter **

Twitter Name
Twitter Handle
Location ***
Joined Twitter
1Michelle Lin@M_LinSan Francisco, USA7,428Apr 2009
2Michelle Johnston@EleytheriusPerth3,751Feb 2010
3Pam Nelmes@Pam007NelmesCornwall, UK3,695Sep 2010
4ER doc@ER_doc3,059Jun 2008
5Natalie May@_NMayManchester, United Kingdom2,751Jul 2012
6Heidi Allen@dreamingspiresSydney, Australia2,391Oct 2008
7Deirdre Bonnycastle@BonnycastleSaskatoon, Sask, Canada2,309Oct 2008
8Natalie Lafferty@nlaffertyDundee, UK2,247Mar 2008
9Lauren Westafer@lwestaferNew England, United States2,037Apr 2012
10K Dillon, RDMS, CPC@comalliwritesBay Area1,742Nov 2009
11Teresa Chan@TChanMDCanada (Hamilton, ON)1,653Jun 2009
12Laleh Gharahbaghian@SonoSpotSan Francisco/Stanford1,520May 2012
13Esther Choo MD MPH@choo_ek1,515Jan 2012
14Tessa Davis@TessaRDavisSydney1,491Oct 2011
15Nikita Joshi@njoshi8California1,332Dec 2012
16Annalisa Manca@AnnalisaMancaDundee, Scotland1,268Feb 2009
17Penny Wilson@nomadicgpWestern Australia1,194Mar 2012
18Petra Dolman@petradMDPrince George, BC, Canada1,011May 2013
19Eve Purdy@purdy_eve931Jul 2012
20Shannon O. McNamara@ShannonOMacNew York, NY899Jun 2009
21Melanie Clothier@drmelclothierRural South Australia835Nov 2011
22Jordana Haber@JoJoHaberBrooklyn, NY787Mar 2012
23Cathi Mon@cathimonSouth Australia710Aug 2011
24Victoria Stephen@EMcardiacJohannesburg, South Africa704Nov 2012
25Shweta Gidwani@Global_EMLondon691Feb 2009

* Those without one of the FOAM hashtags in her Twitter profile are not included on this list, even if they produce excellent, free content such as Victoria Brazil (@SocraticEM), Megan Ranney, MD MPH (@meganranney), and Ash Witt (@ash_witt).

** Information current as of August 29, 2014.

*** Locations were taken directly from Twitter profiles.


Certainly, the metric of Twitter followers does not necessarily correlate with quality, and it misses newcomers to the FOAM scene and those with a more focused area of expertise/interest.


  • There is worldwide representation from Australia, Canada, the UK, South Africa, the USA, and more.
  • A variety of healthcare professional representation including emergency physicians, nurses, and general practitioners.
  • Subspecialties within Emergency Medicine are also well represented including pediatrics, public health, medical education, simulation, and ultrasound.

It’s amazing to be part of such a great FOAM community with its breadth of expertise and diversity.

Future Direction

Others have noted the lack of gender diversity in the community and have sought solutions. Dr. Petra Dolman (@petradMD) recently launched a new twitter account (@feMedchat) and hashtag (#feMed) dedicated to discussing issues relevant to women in medicine with regular twitter chats, article discussion, and potential mentoring opportunities. This is sure to become an area to follow for future growth and opportunity.

Author information

Bryan D. Hayes, PharmD, FAACT

Bryan D. Hayes, PharmD, FAACT

ALiEM Associate Editor

Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Maryland (UM)

Clinical Pharmacy Specialist, EM and Toxicology

The post The 25 Most Followed #FOAMed Women on Twitter appeared first on ALiEM.

EM Match Advice: Interviewing Strategies

EM Match icon

We are thrilled to hear that the first three Google Hangout videos for EM Match Advice were helpful for medical students, applying into EM. With interview season rapidly approaching in a few months (Nov-Feb), we gathered a few of our favorite program directors to discuss interviewing tips. Thanks again to Dr. Mike Gisondi for spearheading this innovative and helpful resource for medical students.

EM Match Advice: Interviewing Strategies


  • 00:00 Dr. Gisondi introduces the speakers. He briefly describes relevant articles in the literature on EM residency interviewing [1-5] with a mention of the multiple mini-interview (MMI), which was discussed on an ALiEM blog post and hangout.
  • 02:47  Dr. Babcock discusses deciding how many interviews to do and scheduling interviews.
  • 08:24  Dr. Babcock talks about how weather (such as a “polar vortex”) can disrupt the interview day/season. How to deal?
  • 09:34  Dr. Babcock comments on the pre-interview day social event.
  • 10:44  Drs. Lin, Regan, and Shayne weigh in on the importance of the social event.
  • 12:43  The panel shares how each of their programs set up the social event.
  • 15:04  The panel shares their thoughts about when’s the best time to schedule your interview.
  • 17:18  Dr. Shayne reminds students that they may do their interview while on their away rotation.
  • 18:15  Dr. Regan talks about what the actual interview day looks like.
  • 22:06  Dr. Regan shares the value/challenges of applicants meeting residents while on interview day.
  • 24:30  The panelists share what types of questions might come up on your interview day.
  • 28:43  Dr. Regan shares her tips for applicants when they are asked — “Do you have any questions?”
  • 33:34  Dr. Shayne kickstarts a conversation about professionalism regarding interview day — Is it ok to cancel an interview?
  • 37:43  Drs. Shayne and Gisondi clarify what the interview-offering process looks like from his perspective as a program director. Offering interviews to applicants is almost a one-and-done process. After that, not many more slots are left for the rest of the interview season [2].
  • 39:50  Dr. Gisondi asks the panel what applicants should do when they are in “wait-list limbo land” with only 4-5 interviews scheduled. Dr. Shayne weighs in.
  • 41:45  Dr. Shayne sets up the panel discussion about the issue of applicants being asked inappropriate interview questions and how to address them, if they happen [4].
  • 48:40  Dr. Lin shares a 2011 NRMP document about why a general recommendation is to interview at 10-14 programs [6].
  • 50:30  The panel sums up the do’s and don’ts of interview season.
  • 55:35  The panel shares something interesting about their residency program and why applicants should look at their program.


  1. Hopson LR, Burkhardt JC, Stansfield RB, Vohra T, Turner-Lawrence D, Losman ED. The multiple mini-interview for emergency medicine resident selection. J Emerg Med. 2014 Apr;46(4):537-43. PMID: 24462031.
  2. DeIorio NM, Yarris LM, Kalbfleisch ND. Early invitations for residency interviews: the exception or the norm? J Emerg Med. 2007 Jul;33(1):77-9. PMID: 17630083.
  3. Martin-Lee L, Park H, Overton DT. Does interview date affect match list position in the emergency medicine national residency matching program match? Acad Emerg Med. 2000 Sep;7(9):1022-6. PubMed PMID: 11043998.
  4. Hern HG Jr, Alter HJ, Wills CP, Snoey ER, Simon BC. How prevalent are potentially illegal questions during residency interviews? Acad Med. 2013 Aug;88(8):1116-21. PMID: 23807097.
  5. Collings J. Residency Interviews (PDF handout from Dr. Jamie Collings).
  6. Charting Outcomes in the Match, 2011: Characteristics of Applicants Who Matched to Their Preferred Specialty in the 2011 NRMP Main Residency Match (4th edition, PDF).


Author information

Michelle Lin, MD

ALiEM Editor-in-Chief

Editorial Board Member, Annals of Emergency Medicine

UCSF Academy Endowed Chair for EM Education

UCSF Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine

San Francisco General Hospital

The post EM Match Advice: Interviewing Strategies appeared first on ALiEM.

ADJUST-PE Study: ALiEM-Annals of EM Journal Club

ALiEM-AnnalsEM-SquareWe are very excited this month to bring you our fourth ALiEM-Annals of EM Global Journal Club on the use of age-adjusted D-dimer levels to help exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). We hope you will participate in an online discussion of the four posted questions below from now until August 29th. Respond by commenting below or tweeting (#ALiEMJC). Mark your calendars: On Thursday, August 28th at 16:30 CST (17:30 EST), we will be hosting a 30-minute live Google Hangout with Drs. Jeff Kline and Jonathan Kirschner, the authors of the Annals of Emergency Medicine Journal Club for the ADJUST-PE Trial, that is informed by the discussion. Later this year, a summary of this journal club will hopefully be published in Annals of EM.

Google Hangout With Drs. Kline and Kirschner

Coming on Thursday, August 28 at 16:30 CST (17:30 EST)

Twitter Feed with #ALiEMJC


ADJUST-PE Study and Annals of EM Journal Club Citations

Righini M et al. Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels to Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism: The ADJUST-PE Study. JAMA. Mar 2014; 311(11):1117-24. PMID: 24643601

Kirschner JM, Kline JA. Is it time to raise the bar? Age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff levels to exclude pulmonary embolism. Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Jul;64(1):86-7. PMID: 24951413.


ADJUST-PE Abstract

Importance: D-dimer measurement is an important step in the diagnostic strategy of clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but its clinical usefulness is limited in elderly patients.

Objective: To prospectively validate whether an age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff, defined as age x 10 in patients 50 years or older, is associated with an increased diagnostic yield of D-dimer in elderly patients with suspected PE.

Design, Settings, and Patients: A multicenter, multinational, prospective management outcome study in 19 centers in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, and Switzerland between January 1, 2010, and February 28, 2013.

Interventions: All consecutive outpatients who presented to the emergency department with clinically suspected PE were assessed by a sequential diagnostic strategy based on the clinical probability assessed using either the simplified, revised Geneva score or the 2-level Wells score for PE; highly sensitive D-dimer measurement; and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Patients with a D-dimer value between the conventional cutoff of 500 μg/L and their age-adjusted cutoff did not undergo CTPA and were left untreated and formally followed-up for a 3-month period.

Results: Of the 3346 patients with suspected PE included, the prevalence of PE was 19%. Among the 2898 patients with a non-high or an unlikely clinical probability, 817 patients (28.2%) had a D-dimer level lower than 500 μg/L (95%CI, 26.6%-29.9%) and 337 patients (11.6%) had a D-dimer between 500 μg/L and their age-adjusted cutoff (95%CI, 10.5%-12.9%). The 3-month failure rate in patients with a D-dimer level higher than 500 μg/L but below the age-adjusted cutoff was 1 of 331 patients (0.3%[95%CI,0.1%-1.7%]).Among the 766 patients 75 years or older, of whom 673 had a non-high clinical probability, using the age-adjusted cutoff instead of the 500 μg/L cutoff increased the proportion of patients in whom PE could be excluded on the basis of D-dimer from 43 of 673 patients (6.4%[95%CI, 4.8%-8.5%) to 200 of 673 patients (29.7% [95%CI, 26.4%-33.3%), without any additional false-negative findings.

Conclusions and Relevance: Compared with a fixed D-dimer cutoff of 500 μg/L, the combination of pretest clinical probability assessment with age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff was associated with a larger number of patients in whom PE could be considered ruled out with a low likelihood of subsequent clinical venous thromboembolism. 


FOAM Discussion to Date on Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Testing

Boring EMADJUST-PE: Should We Adjust the D-Dimer Cut-Off for Age?Brent ThomaBlogCanadaJuly 28th, 2014
REBEL EMUpdate on Age-Adjusted D-DimerSalim R. RezaieBlogUnited StatesJuly 11, 2014
REBEL EMAge-Adjusted D-Dimer TestingSalim R. RezaieBlogUnited StatesApril 28, 2014
EM Literature of NoteGo Ahead, Age-Adjust the D-DimerRyan RadeckiBlogUnited StatesApril 16, 2014
Emergency Medicine IrelandAge Adjusted D-dimer Cut OffsAndy NeillBlogIrelandApril 7, 2014
EM NerdThe Adventure of the Golden StandardRory SpiegelBlogUnited StatesJuly 1, 2014
Boring EM D-Dimer: Should We Adjust the Cut-Off Value For Age?Brent ThomaBlogCanadaJuly 18, 2013



Featured Questions

Q1: The median age of this European study population was 63 years, which is older than most American populations tested for PE. What effect might the older population studied have on the diagnostic accuracy of the D-dimer assay? What effect might older age have on the overall findings of this study?

Q2: Although all of the D-dimer assays used in this study had the same 500 μg/L cutoff for an abnormal value, many other quantitative D-dimer assays have different cutoffs for abnormal. What is the basis of the differences in cutoffs? Can the results of this study be translated to D-dimers with different cutoffs?

Q3: In diagnostic test accuracy studies, the prevalence of disease in the study population will directly affect the derived positive and negative predictive values—so-called posttest probabilities. The prevalence of PE in this study was 19%. How does that number compare with the prevalence of PE in studies performed in other countries? How does prevalence of disease in the study population affect the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic strategy?

Q4: Based on this study, would you change your practice, assuming that you have one of the 6 studied D-dimer assays? For instance, you see a 60 year-old woman with a non-high pretest probability for a PE. Your D-dimer result is 590 μg/L. Would you perform a CTPA?

Please participate in the journal club by answering either on the ALiEM blog comments below or by tweeting us using the hashtag #ALiEMJC. Please denote the question you are responding to by starting your reply with Q1, Q2, Q3, or Q4.

Best Blog and Tweet

NEW! Contest for Best Blog Comment and Tweet

We are implementing a contest for the Best Blog Quote and Best Tweet. What, emergency physicians – competitive? No… The winners will be announced in our Annals of EM publication curating this discussion.


Disclaimer: We reserve the right to use any and all tweets to #ALiEMJC and comments below in a commentary piece for an Annals of EM publication as curated conclusion piece for this global journal club.  Your comments will be attributed, and we thank you in advance for your contributions.

Author information

Salim Rezaie, MD

Salim Rezaie, MD

ALiEM Associate Editor

Clinical Assistant Professor of EM and IM

University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

Founder, Editor, Author of R.E.B.E.L. EM and REBEL Reviews

The post ADJUST-PE Study: ALiEM-Annals of EM Journal Club appeared first on ALiEM.

I am Lainie Yarris, Residency Director at OHSU: How I Work Smarter

How I Work Smarter LogoIn the first post for the “How I Work Smarter” series, I called out Dr. Esther Choo (@choo_ek), who then called out superstar educator Dr. Lainie Yarris (@lainieyarris) from OHSU. A quick Pubmed search of her name scrolls on and on, that I can’t even do justice about summarizing. Oh, and did I mention that she also the residency director for her department’s EM program? She was featured on a recent EM Match Advice Google Hangout video. Lainie kindly shares her secrets on working smarter.

  • YarrisName:  Lainie Yarris, MD, MCR
  • Location: Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon
  • Current job: Associate Professor, Residency Director, Education Research Co-Fellowship Director
  • One word that best describes how you work: Erratically!
  • Current mobile device: iPhone 4
  • Current computer: Macbook Air

What’s your office workspace setup like?

Desk, two computer screens, sticky notes on desktop with ongoing things-to-do lists, and paper master next action list. I use both paper and electronic filing systems, but have a scanner and am transitioning to paperless.


What’s your best time-saving tip in the office or home?

Do the most important tasks first. And take advantage of your “best” time for your most important tasks – I am most focused, creative, and efficient in the early mornings. When I have a big deadline or am behind, sometimes I will come into the office at 5 am. I find I can accomplish more in 3 hours in the early morning than I can in an entire workday if I come in from 9 am to 5 pm.

What’s your best time-saving tip regarding email management?

Do not open your email until you have time to process it, and process it immediately.  Either delete, take action, or flag for follow up.  Save email time for when you need a mental break. Batch email processing, and don’t constantly check during the day.

What’s your best time-saving tip in the ED?

Do everything the first time you are in the room, if possible!  Also, mentally run your list/board frequently and batch tasks.

ED charting: Macros or no macros?


What’s the best advice you’ve ever received about work, life, or being efficient?

No matter how efficient you are, we all have more things to do than we can ever accomplish. You can’t always control the tasks that come your way, but you can control your response to them, and what you choose to do first (which sometimes means what you choose to do at all!). Figure out what means the most to you in your life, and schedule those things in first, along with things that are necessary for your health and well-being (sleep, family time, exercise, etc.) Prioritize work tasks in the order of importance/urgency/passion, and fit them in next. Relationships (work-related as well as those outside of work) are always more important than projects and accomplishments, protect and nurture them.

Is there anything else you’d like to add that might be interesting to readers?

I like the Getting Things Done method of time management, and also find good tips and resources on  (I have no affiliation with either).

Who would you love for us to track down to answer these same questions?

  • Craig Newgard, MD, MPH
  • Chris Ross, MD
  • Teresa Chan, MD


Author information

Michelle Lin, MD

ALiEM Editor-in-Chief

Editorial Board Member, Annals of Emergency Medicine

UCSF Academy Endowed Chair for EM Education

UCSF Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine

San Francisco General Hospital

The post I am Lainie Yarris, Residency Director at OHSU: How I Work Smarter appeared first on ALiEM.

Inviting contributors to ALiEM: An open peer-reviewed content submission process

open peer-reviewed content submission processOver the last several years, ALiEM has recruited a team of regular contributors, each with their own individual passions within the entire breadth of Emergency Medicine. ALiEM has provided these individuals with a global platform capable of carrying their message to a target audience of thousands of regular subscribers. Furthermore, the evolution of a rigorous pre-publication Expert Peer Review process has helped ensure that the content is especially polished and scientifically accurate.

Today marks a new day. The overwhelming success of the website and editorial process has led us to what we feel is the next step for this academic blog and online medical education: peer-reviewed community content submission.

If it’s not broken, why fix it?

We have been incredibly privileged to have an amazing core group of authors for the blog, writing on a range of topics using innovative approaches. We also realize how lucky we are to have a global audience of like-minded, lifelong learners in Emergency Medicine and beyond. There is, however, always room to improve and grow. Although our authors are a group of talented educators, we know that there are many more out there, who don’t have instant access to a global audience crossing multiple social media platforms.

That changes today. We are broadening our horizons and opening our website to the global community of clinicians and educators.


school_pencil_profile_12501What is unique about our submission process?

Detailed instructions and the blog submission process can be found on this Submissions webpage.

Uniquely we are employing a novel, three-tiered, peer review approach that we feel rivals and contrasts most medical journals. As content progresses from one level to the next, so too does the level of expertise, ending with an Expert Peer-Review (EPR) by a professional with predefined criteria (e.g. published in the particular subject area). Using this approach, it guarantees a minimum of three sets of eyes on the content prior to reaching the EPR, and four sets of eyes before reaching the ALiEM readership. Examples of this can be found here and here.

ALiEM Submissions Flowchart

Because we value transparency, all reviewers/editors will be identified and credited for their input. Furthermore at each step, comments from each reviewer/editor will be publicly available and incorporated into the final blog post. There are pros and cons in creating a completely open review process, but we feel that the pros significantly outweigh the cons. We look forward to everyone’s feedback on this novel approach.

Finally, we are excited to provide authors with a one-time analytic report of their statistics, upon request. We have a separate Analytics Editor, who can provide a report of the web traffic generated from your blog post. This includes the number of page views, cities, and countries who have visited your URL link during a specific period (e.g. the first 7 days). Typically the greatest number of hits for a post peaks within the first week. We have found that this is a great adjunct when you are citing your blog post in your CV.

How should I report my blog post on my CV?

There are several ways to report authorship of a blog post. We favor the APA format:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name {as it appears on the blog}. (Year, Month Day {of post}). Title of specific post [Web log post]. Retrieved from URL of specific post.


Sifford D. (2014, June 5). Research Figures Demystified: Bland-Altman Plot [Academic Life in Emergency Medicine]. Retrieved from


We look forward to the great content to come. We hope that you will join our authorship team and share your educational pearls with a global community of lifelong learners.

Author information

Derek Sifford, FP-C, CCP-C, C-NPT, NRP

Derek Sifford, FP-C, CCP-C, C-NPT, NRP

Premedical student, Wayne State University

Critical Care Paramedic, serving the Henry Ford Health System (Detroit, MI)

ALiEM New Submissions Editor


The post Inviting contributors to ALiEM: An open peer-reviewed content submission process appeared first on ALiEM.

EM Match Advice: The EM Rotation, ERAS, and Am I Competitive?

EM Match iconToday launches a series of Google Hangout videos, which was created and expertly facilitated by Dr. Michael Gisondi (@MikeGisondi) from Northwestern. In this series, he recruited an amazing panel of program directors from around the country, who have kindly volunteered their time to share their insights and expertise. In these videos, you get a sense of each panelist’s personalities while they outdo each other with behind-the-scenes advice and stories, which would normally be shared only at the institutional level. Our videocasts are a unique must-see for medical students, interested in and applying into Emergency Medicine (EM). Keep a look out for more videos in the future!

The EM Rotation

Dr. Gisondi facilitates a great discussion featuring esteemed residency program directors Dr. Lainie Yarris (Oregon Health Sciences University), Dr. Maria Moreira (Denver Health), and Dr. Jan Schoenberger (LAC-USC), with the occasional outburst/question by Dr. Michelle Lin (UCSF-SFGH).


  • 00:00  Dr. Mike Gisondi introduces the series and talks about 3 key publications to review for the EM medical student and how to succeed in the EM rotation
  • 05:11  Dr. Lainie Yarris discusses “what defines an honors level performance?”
  • 08:23  Dr. Maria Moreira discusses the differences between an away and a home rotation?
  • 11:24  Dr. Maria Moreira discusses the art of getting a Standardized Letter of Evaluation (SLOE) from their EM rotation
  • 13:43  Dr. Jan Schoenberger discusses how to be a stellar stand-out in a rotation with only a pass-fail system in the EM rotation.
  • 14:45  Dr. Michelle Lin poses the question to the PD’s about — “I didn’t get an honors, now what?”
  • 16:28  Dr. Schoenberger addresses advising/counseling approaches
  • 17:35  Dr. Lin asks about the “departmental SLOE” letter
  • 18:10  Dr. Schoenberger talks about her departmental SLOE
  • 18:45  Dr. Yarris talks about her departmental SLOE and the value of intangible, behavioral characteristics in applicants
  • 19:45  Dr. Moreira talks about her department’s SLOE approach and reminds us that programs want diversity in the program
  • 22:48  Dr. Yarris – pearls and pitfalls
  • 24:05  Dr. Moreira - pearls and pitfalls
  • 26:36  Dr. Schoenberger – pearls and pitfalls
  • 29:18  Dr. Gisondi wraps things up by asking the 3 program directors to share something awesome back their program and something that we might not know about their program.


  1. Mahadevan S, Garmel GM. The outstanding medical student in emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Apr;8(4):402-3. PMID: 11282680.
  2. AAEM Rules of the Road for Medical Students (2003), a free PDF.
  3. Davenport C, Honigman B, Druck J. The 3-minute emergency medicine medical student presentation: a variation on a theme. Acad Emerg Med. 2008 Jul;15(7):683-7. PMID: 18691216.


Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS)

Dr. Gisondi (Northwestern) facilitates a great discussion featuring star residency program directors Dr. Gene Hern (Highland-Alameda), Dr. Laura Hopson (Univ of Michigan), and Dr. Josh Broder (Duke), with an occasional question by Dr. Michelle Lin (UCSF-SFGH).


  • 00:00  Dr. Gisondi introduces the series and talks about 3 key publications to review about what are important in the ERAS application
  • 09:37  Dr. Hern talks about his perspectives about the ERAS and what matters to him and his program at Highland
  • 15:00  Dr. Hern discusses what parts of the ERAS the student should focus more time on.
  • 16:25  Dr. Hern reviews what doesn’t matter as much on the ERAS.
  • 17:41  Dr. Hopson drops pearls about what to do and where to focus your time on the ERAS application.
  • 21:38  Dr. Hopson shares her perspectives about looking for the well-rounded, multitasking applicant.
  • 22:15  Dr. Hopson talks about red-flags in filling out the ERAS application.
  • 26:00  Dr. Broder shares his thoughts about how a non-superstar applicant can shine on his/her application.
  • 28:37  Dr. Gisondi and Dr. Hern talk about how some red flags in the application can be addressed.
  • 31:20  Dr. Hopson recommends teaming up with your mentor/advisor in addressing any red flags in the SLOE.
  • 32:10  Dr. Broder shares his comments how he approaches thinks about any red-flag candidates.
  • 33:07  Dr. Lin shares her thoughts about the personal statement and concerns about honesty on the application.
  • 34:58  Dr. Hern talks about his 2005 BMJ Med Educ study about errors/omissions on the ERAS applications (BMJ Med Educ 2005).
  • 36:16  Dr. Hopson talks about poor integrity, in the form of inconsistent information within the application packet, being a huge red flag in applications.
  • 37:33  Dr. Broder and Dr. Gisondi banter about application misrepresentation.
  • 39:04  Dr. Hene talks about final thoughts – pearls and pitfalls
  • 41:38  Dr. Hopson talks about final thoughts – pearls and pitfalls. In a nutshell: Be yourself.
  • 42:11  Dr. Broder talks about final thoughts – pearls and pitfalls.
  • 43:13  Dr. Lin talks about final thoughts – pearls and pitfalls.
  • 44:16  The panel talks about the “drop dead” deadline for the ERAS application.
  • 45:10  Dr. Lin challenges the panel by asking about the few programs who may offer interviews before the Dean’s letter comes out.
  • 47:46  Dr. Hern shares why one should apply to Highland.
  • 49:28  Dr. Hopson shares why one should apply to University of Michigan.
  • 50:22  Dr. Broder shares why one should apply to Duke.


  1. Hayden SR, Hayden M, Gamst A. What characteristics of applicants to emergency medicine residency programs predict future success as an emergency medicine resident? Acad Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;12(3):206-10. PMID: 15741582.
  2. Breyer MJ, Sadosty A, Biros M. Factors Affecting Candidate Placement on an Emergency Medicine Residency Program’s Rank Order List. West J Emerg Med. 2012 Dec;13(6):458-62. PMID: 23359215. Free PDF.
  3. Green M, Jones P, Thomas JX Jr. Selection criteria for residency: results of a national program directors survey. Acad Med. 2009 Mar;84(3):362-7. PMID: 19240447.
  4. Katz ED, Shockley L, Kass L, Howes D, Tupesis JP, Weaver C, Sayan OR, Hogan V, Begue J, Vrocher D, Frazer J, Evans T, Hern G, Riviello R, Rivera A, Kinoshita K, Ferguson E. Identifying inaccuracies on emergency medicine residency applications. BMC Med Educ. 2005 Aug 16;5:30. PMID: 16105178. Free article link.


Mirror Mirror on the Wall: Am I Competitive?

Dr. Gisondi (Northwestern) kicks off a great conversation and debate about the knowing how competitive you are, as an applicant. This panel features star residency program directors Dr. Andrew Perron (Maine Medical Center), Dr. Madonna Fernandez (Harbor-UCLA), and Dr. Kevin Biese (UNC Chapel Hill), with comments by Dr. Michelle Lin (UCSF-SFGH).


  • 00:00  Dr. Gisondi launches this panel discussion on determining your competitiveness in the application process. He
  • 03:19  Dr. Gisondi delves right into a great PDF that summarizes some recent statistics about How Competitive is the EM Match that he and Jill Craig compiled. FYI, “SOAP” in the document means Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program. For a more full listing see the NRMP website [1].
  • 07:26  Dr. Lin discusses what her take-away points after looking at the trends.
  • 09:08  Dr. Biese follows up with his take-away points from these trends.
  • 09:31  Dr. Gisondi weighs in on these trends as well. “There’s a home for (almost) every EM applicant.”
  • 11:00  Dr. Gisondi discusses relevant papers [2-4].
  • 15:58  Dr. Lin fields the first question about — how many programs should I apply to?
  • 18:00  Dr. Perron makes a grand entrance and stresses the importance of a knowledgeable advisor.
  • 19:03   Dr. Perron shares stories about application numbers.
  • 21:32   The panel debates about how many programs to interview at. What is the interview-canceling etiquette? What about couples matching? Tax-break tips?
  • 26:40  Dr. Biese talks about how applications are screened once their submitted into ERAS.
  • 30:09  Dr. Gisondi shares on his perspectives on the numbers game (i.e. USMLE scores).
  • 32:40  The panel rapid-fires about how to address stumbling blocks in one’s application (e.g. below average scores or poor shelf exam scores).
  • 37:34  Dr. Biese shares a story about why a “creative” personal statement that stands out maybe isn’t a good idea.
  • 40:04  Dr. Fernandez shares how to find a great advisor about matching into EM, especially if there’s no home EM residency department to help advise. Think about SAEM/CDEM’s e-Advisor system (application system).
  • 43:40  Dr. Fernandez and Dr. Biese describe what makes a quality advisor.
  • 47:30  Dr. Gisondi and Dr. Fernandez share who/what might be questionable resources for advice and why.
  • 51:18  Dr. Lin summarizes it all to the bottom line – Get a good advisor.
  • 52:43  Dr. Biese clarifies that there are two games afoot – get an interview vs get ranked highly on rank day.
  • 54:27  The panel each leaves a short take-away pearl/pitfall.
  • 57:30  The panel shares something that one might not know about their residency program.


  1. NRMP Match Results and Data 2014 (PDF)
  2. Crane JT, Ferraro CM. Selection criteria for emergency medicine residency applicants. Acad Emerg Med. 2000 Jan;7(1):54-60. PubMed PMID: 10894243.
  3. Girzadas DV Jr, Harwood RC, Delis SN, Stevison K, Keng G, Cipparrone N, Carlson A, Tsonis GD. Emergency medicine standardized letter of recommendation: predictors of guaranteed match. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Jun;8(6):648-53. PMID: 11388941.
  4. Lotfipour S, Luu R, Hayden SR, Vaca F, Hoonpongsimanont W, Langdorf M. Becoming an emergency medicine resident: a practical guide for medical students. J Emerg Med. 2008 Oct;35(3):339-44. PMID: 18547776.


Author information

Michelle Lin, MD

ALiEM Editor-in-Chief

Editorial Board Member, Annals of Emergency Medicine

UCSF Academy Endowed Chair for EM Education

UCSF Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine

San Francisco General Hospital

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