Escaping Addiction with Dignity as a Medical Student

drugs alcohol canstockphoto0265835“The most obvious, ubiquitous, important realities are often the ones that are the hardest to see and talk about.” –David Foster Wallace

Addiction can be a nightmare of isolation and shame, but it doesn’t have to be.

I will always remember my last night of withdraw; sitting in the busy waiting room of my training hospital. I kept thinking about what might happen if one of my EM attendings were to care for me. To see me sick, weak, and vulnerable. Nobody other than my family knew I struggled with alcohol abuse, and I was exhausted with the neverending cycle of trying to manage addiction on my own. This had to stop.

Physicians-in-training are at particular risk for developing addictions, but the topic is seldom discussed in an open and straightforward manner. This essay is designed to give the reader practical background knowledge on the topic of medical students and physicians struggling with addiction.

Background

Addiction affects medical professionals and laypersons indiscriminately. Medical professional substance abuse rates hover around 9-12%, equal or greater than non-medical populations.1,2 Substances most frequently abused include alcohol and prescription medications with cocaine, amphetamines, marijuana and psychedelics appearing at lesser rates.3 Studies of resident physicians demonstrate that different specialties have tendencies toward different drugs of choice. For example, resident surgeons tend to abuse alcohol; emergency medicine alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and marijuana; psychiatry marijuana, benzodiazepines, psychedelics; anesthesia opioids and alcohol.4 Women and men physicians both suffer from substance abuse disorders, though usage patterns and risk factors seem to differ between sexes.5

Medical students and residents are at least as susceptible to addictive behaviors as their attendings.4 In 1991, the first serious survey of senior medical students illustrated that students are unlikely to self-report substance abuse or dependency, with only 1.6% responding that they wanted help with substance abuse, and only 25.7% aware of school policies.6 This reluctance to self-identify as substance dependent is noteworthy because at the time of the survey, medical student drinking patterns were demonstrated to be increased compared to their non-medical peers.7 Residencies also seem to under-estimate the number of residents suffering from substance abuse disorders. A lack of insight into the process, procedures, and realities of recovery has been identified as an issue with medical personnel throughout the entire spectrum of education and practice.7

Like any other disease, substance abuse is influenced by a mixture of environmental, genetic, and behavioral components. No longer minimized as simply the lack of discipline and moral failure, research is being conducted on the genetic and neurochemical predispositions underlying addition.8 Any addictive substance can result in a use disorder if abused long enough, but for some people the threshold for forming an addiction is lower. An addict often describes having a “magical connection” to their drug of choice which can be demonstrated via PET scan.9 Addicts often experience an exaggerated stimulating effect while using depressants.10 Relapse rates peak weeks or months after initiating abstinence because an addict’s cravings initially worsen before they improve.11 The neuroscience of addiction is increasingly utilized to design effective psychiatric treatment, and is providing some insight into how addiction overcomes the willpower and insight of highly functional people.12

Physicians are notoriously good at obscuring their illness and delaying treatment until the last moment, usually when they are finally faced with legal and/or professional consequences.13 Physicians make admirable “closet” addicts, finding their high professional standards at odds with their personal struggles. Obfuscation increases the severity of illness by increasing a sense of isolation and ultimately delaying treatment.14

Realities of Recovery

There is a difference between having a potentially impairing medical condition and endangering patients by practicing as an impaired physician. This distinction is recognized by many professional organizations, including the Federation of State Medical Boards. The Federation of State Medical Boards comments on this distinction in the following way:

Some regulatory agencies equate ―illness (i.e. addiction or depression) as synonymous with ―impairment. Physician illness and impairment exist on a continuum with illness typically predating impairment, often by many years. This is a critically important distinction. Illness is the existence of a disease. Impairment is a functional classification and implies the inability of the person affected by disease to perform specific activities.15

The potentially impaired student is in a unique situation where early intervention maximizes benefit to that student and future patients while minimizing professional risk. Student health services at medical schools are looking to intervene positively in these students’ lives before significant consequences occur.

Physician Health Programs

Physician health programs, sometimes called impaired physician organizations, are essential for obtaining professional advocacy with a strong legal backing. Similar to having a lawyer, physician health programs advocate to the medical board on behalf of the physician in recovery. After establishing a relationship with them, their job is to intervene for questions such as “have you ever received treatment for any addiction or psychological conditions?” Oftentimes their intervention is a key step in maintaining certification, and no medical professional should go in front of the board alone.

The Federation of State Medical Boards also encourages participation in physician health programs due to their ability to manage addiction cases effectively and confidentially:

As long as the physician is willing to abide by contracted agreements struck by the PHP (physician health program) and the physician does not pose a risk of harm to the public, the physician participant can maintain confidentiality. By maintaining confidentiality and avoiding physician discipline, hospitals and medical staffs are incentivized to refer physicians into a PHP early rather than wait for frank impairment and referral to the board for discipline.

The “physician health program” model of advocacy has been successful enough in the United States that the British Medical Journal has recently published articles suggesting Great Britain develop similar models for their medical system.16

Medical professionals are best treated at specialized centers designed for professionals. Centers specializing in care of medical professionals can be accessed through physician health programs, and treatment usually takes place over a 6-8 week partial, inpatient, or intensive-outpatient setting. Professionals have a different set of social and psychological dynamics than the general population, and they need to be treated by groups that specialize in these challenges. Physicians in recovery have a uniquely high recovery rate. For example, an emergency-medicine physician’s five year recovery rate is significantly above the national average, somewhere between 71-86%.3

Addiction centers for professionals also provide family support and education, advocacy for work-related issues, and psychological/medical support. They prescribe aftercare recommendations and help initiate monitoring protocols. Monitoring is typically achieved through random urine screens and/or home breathalyzer tests. As time passes, this monitoring becomes less stringent and is always confidential.

License Reinstatement

In cases where the physician’s licensure is revoked the revocation can be overturned after a period of time, and is often dependent on continued compliance with treatment and monitoring conditions. Medical license reinstatements are handled by the aforementioned Federation of State Medical Boards, but specialty certification must be reinstated as well.

Specialty certification boards typically have their own standards for reinstatement. For example, the American Board of Internal Medicine requires one year of monitored sobriety before re-evaluation.17 The American Board of Surgeons and American Board of Anesthesiologists both require completion of a rehabilitation program and compliance with treatment and monitoring.18,19 The American College of Emergency Physicians recommends early recognition and non-punitive mechanisms of reporting that include mechanisms for physicians to return to practice.20

Hospital credentialing issues may appear in the future depending on the physician’s history and length of recovery time. Credentialing typically requires a physician to appear before a credentialing committee where the physician has an opportunity to discuss their recovery and present evidence of compliance held by their PHP.

Medical personnel with addictions sometimes have a history of abusing diverted medications and/or writing illegal scripts. In these cases, the Drug Enforcement Agency may open a case on the physician, requiring legal intervention on the physician’s behalf. Entering treatment and addressing illegal activities before DEA intervention is best if still possible, but recovering physicians may have their DEA license renewed after a probationary period. Physician health programs and hospital employee assistance programs have increased jurisdiction over cases where the physician voluntarily seeks assistance. 

Read More

For those interested in researching more on this topic I would recommend starting by reading the two articles:7,13

  1. Aach RD. Alcohol and Other Substance Abuse and Impairment among Physicians in Residency Training. Annals of Intrnal Medicine Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(3):245.
  2. Mansky PA. Issues in the Recovery of Physicians from Addictive Illnesses. Psychiatric Quarterly. Doi:10.1023/a:1022197218945.

Conclusion

Substance abuse disorders among physicians and medical students occur at a rate similar to the general population. These disorders are no longer being minimized as a failure of personal integrity, and research is essential for designing effective treatment regimes. There seems to be a lack of general awareness about the way addiction manifests in medical populations. Physicians are less likely to receive treatment early on in the disease course, though their recovery outcomes are better than the general population. Physician health programs and physician treatment centers are essential advocates for recovering physicians, and medical licensing boards have policies for reintegrating a physician in recovery to the work force. Delay of treatment significantly complicates recovery and a physician ought to enter treatment before their disease progresses from potentially impairing to endangering to patients.

If a physician feels uncomfortable with their substance use, it is reasonable for them to get evaluated for a potential substance abuse disorder earlier rather than later.

A physician in recovery is as respectable as they are resilient. The recovery processes requires deliberate practice developing grit and conscientiousness, and these men and women learn a kind of patience only long-suffering can teach. They experience the kind of goodness available only to a person who has the strength to confess vulnerability.

I wish you more than luck.

 

 

1.
Baldisseri MR. Impaired healthcare professional. Critical Care Medicine. 2007;35(Suppl):S106-S116. doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000252918.87746.96.
2.
Rose J, Campbell M, Skipper G. Prognosis for Emergency Physician with Substance Abuse Recovery: 5-year Outcome Study. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2014;15(1):20-25. doi:10.5811/westjem.2013.7.17871.
3.
Merlo LJ, Trejo-Lopez J, Conwell T, Rivenbark J. Patterns of substance use initiation among healthcare professionals in recovery. The American Journal on Addictions. 2013;22(6):605-612. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12017.x.
4.
Resident physician substance use, by specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1992;149(10):1348-1354. doi:10.1176/ajp.149.10.1348.
5.
MCGOVERN M, ANGRES D, UZIELMILLER N, LEON S. Female Physicians and Substance AbuseComparisons with Male Physicians Presenting for Assessment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 1998;15(6):525-533. doi:10.1016/s0740-5472(97)00312-7.
6.
Baldwin D, Hughes P, Conard S, Storr C, Sheehan D. Substance use among senior medical students. A survey of 23 medical schools. JAMA. 1991;265(16):2074-2078.
7.
Aach RD. Alcohol and Other Substance Abuse and Impairment among Physicians in Residency Training. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1992;116(3):245. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-116-3-245.
8.
Volkow ND, Koob G. Brain disease model of addiction: why is it so controversial? The Lancet Psychiatry. 2015;2(8):677-679. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(15)00236-9.
9.
Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND. Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002;159(10):1642-1652. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.10.1642.
10.
Addicott MA, Marsh-Richard DM, Mathias CW, Dougherty DM. The Biphasic Effects of Alcohol: Comparisons of Subjective and Objective Measures of Stimulation, Sedation, and Physical Activity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2007;31(11):1883-1890. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00518.x.
11.
Li X, Caprioli D, Marchant NJ. Recent updates on incubation of drug craving: a mini-review. Addiction Biology. 2014;20(5):872-876. doi:10.1111/adb.12205.
12.
Bechara A. Decision making, impulse control and loss of willpower to resist drugs: a neurocognitive perspective. Nature Neuroscience. 2005;8(11):1458-1463. doi:10.1038/nn1584.
13.
Mansky P. Issues in the recovery of physicians from addictive illnesses. Psychiatr Q. 1999;70(2):107-122.
14.
Verghese A. Physicians and Addiction. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002;346(20):1510-1511. doi:10.1056/nejm200205163462002.
15.
Policy on Physician Impairment [PDF]. Federation of State Medical Boards. https://www.fsmb.org/Media/Default/PDF/FSMB/Advocacy/grpol_policy-on-physician-impairment.pdf. Published April 2011.
16.
Strang J, Wilks M, Wells B, Marshall J. Missed problems and missed opportunities for addicted doctors. BMJ. 1998;316(7129):405-406. doi:10.1136/bmj.316.7129.405.
17.
General Policies – Substance Abuse. American Board of Internal Medicine. http://www.abim.org/certification/policies/general/policies.aspx. Published 2016. Accessed July 5, 2016.
18.
Substance Abuse. The American Board of Surgery. http://www.absurgery.org/default.jsp?policysubabuse. Published March 2014.
19.
Primary Certification Policy Booklet. The American Board of Anesthesiology. http://www.theaba.org/PDFs/BOI/BOI_PrimaryCertification. Published February 2016.
20.
Physician Impairment. American College of Emergency Physicians. https://www.acep.org/Clinical—Practice-Management/Physician-Impairment/. Published October 2013.

Author information

Luke Collins, MA

Luke Collins, MA

Medical student
Indiana School of Medicine, South Bend Campus at Notre Dame

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EM Match Advice: Program Directors Reflect on the 2016 Match

EM Match advice icon

The new emergency medicine (EM) residency application season is upon us! Senior medical students are arranging away EM electives, asking for letters of recommendations, and thinking about what residency programs to apply to. But before we look forward, what lessons can we learn from the 2016 EM Residency Match? In this EM Match Advice series installment, an esteemed panel of program directors reflect on the trends, surprises, and lessons learned from the 2015-16 year.

EM Match Advice Video

Dr. Michael Gisondi (Northwestern) hosts the discussion with the panelists Dr. Diane Rimple (University of New Mexico), Dr. Michael Bond (University of Maryland), and Dr. Christopher Doty (University of Kentucky).

Podcast Version (Edited)


(Podcast editor: David Yang)

Author information

Michelle Lin, MD

ALiEM Editor-in-Chief
Academy Endowed Chair of EM Education
Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine
University of California, San Francisco

The post EM Match Advice: Program Directors Reflect on the 2016 Match appeared first on ALiEM.

MEdIC Case: The Case of the Honorary Authorship

authorship journal-articles-canstockphoto3359042-200x300Welcome to season 3, episode 9 of the ALiEM Medical Education in Cases (MEdIC) series! Our team (Brent Thoma, Sarah Luckett-Gatopoulos, Tamara McColl, Eve Purdy, John Eicken, and Teresa Chan) is pleased to welcome you to our online community of practice where we discuss the practice of academic medicine! In this month’s case a junior staff person is unsure of whether or not to include a senior staff on a paper.

MEdIC Series: The Concept

MEdIC: The Case of the Honorary Authorship

by Dr. Brent Thoma

Dr. Keurin was excited for her meeting with her research mentee, Andrei, today. He was a junior emergency medicine resident with a strong interest in research that had just completed his first project! They were just meeting to review the final draft before submission. As she walked into the coffee shop she saw him slumped in his chair, looking a bit dejected. That wasn’t like him at all.

“Hey Andrei, is everything okay?”

He sighed. “I dunno. I just met with Dr. Lee to talk about this whole submission process. You know, which journal we should submit my manuscript to and such.” Dr. Lee was the program’s Research Director and one of the most renowned emergency medicine researchers in the country. She knew that one of the reason’s that Andrei had ranked the program so highly was so that he could work with the illustrious Dr. Lee and he had confided to her in previous meetings that he had been disappointed about their lack of interaction so far in residency.

“Oh, and that didn’t go well?” she asked.

“Well, I dunno. It was the first time that we had discussed the project since I ran into him in the hall at the beginning of the year. You’ll remember that he hadn’t been too impressed with the idea at that time.”

Dr. Keurin remembered. That was actually how she, a much more junior researcher in the Faculty, had come to be Andrei’s mentor. She thought he had a great idea for a research project and had supported it to fruition.

“Anyways, I had met with him to ask for some advice on where we should submit the manuscript and we had a good chat about that. But then he mentioned that I should send it to him to give it a final once over and add him as the senior author. He said that if we added his name it would strengthen the chance of our paper getting published. I was so shocked that I didn’t know what to say. You’ve really mentored me through this project, that should be your spot! But I’m also worried about my future job and research projects if I were to piss him off. What do you think?”

Dr. Keurin pursed her lips. This was putting her in an awkward position. She recalled a similar conversation from when she was a resident. She had just gone along with it because she figured that was how research worked, but it didn’t feel right then and it still doesn’t feel right now. At the same time, it would be horrible for her prospects at her institution to be on Dr. Lee’s bad side. What should she say?

Discussion Questions

  1. What are the requirements for being listed as an author on a manuscript? Does Dr. Lee meet these authorship criteria? How should the authorship order be determined?
  2. How should Dr. Keurin deal with this situation? What advice should she give to Andrei? Should she confront Dr. Lee?
  3. What are some policies that you have seen that are used to protect junior residents and faculty from encountering this problem?

Weekly Wrap Up

As always, we will post the expert responses and a curated commentary derived from the community responses 2 weeks after the case is published.

This time the experts (3 jointly writing a piece from the University of Toronto)

  • Farah Friesen, Lindsay Baker, and Dr. Stella Ng from the University of Toronto’s Centre for Faculty Development
  • Dr. Kerstin De Wit from McMaster University

On July 25, 2016 we will post the expert responses to this case! After that date, you may continue to comment below, but your commentary will no longer be integrated into the curated commentary. That said, we’d love to hear from you, so please comment below!

All characters in this case are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental. Also, as always, we will generate a curated community commentary based on your participation below and on Twitter. We will try to attribute names, but if you choose to comment anonymously, you will be referred to as your pseudonym in our writing.

Author information

Teresa Chan, MD

ALiEM Associate Editor
Emergency Physician, Hamilton
Assistant Professor, McMaster University
Ontario, Canada
+ Teresa Chan

The post MEdIC Case: The Case of the Honorary Authorship appeared first on ALiEM.

AIR-Pro Series: Critical Care (part 2) Module

AIR-Pro seriesWelcome to the Critical Care (Part 2) Module! After carefully reviewing all relevant posts from the top 50 sites of the Social Media Index the ALiEM AIR Team is proud to present the highest quality critical care content. Below we have listed our selection of the 11 highest quality blog posts, curated and approved for residency training by the AIR-Pro Series Board. More specifically in this module, we identified 7 AIRs and 4 Honorable Mentions. We recommend programs give 3 hours (20 minutes per article, 30 minutes per podcast) of III credit for this module.

AIR-Pro Critical Care Topics

Below we have listed our selection of the highest quality posts related to 4 advanced level questions on critical care topics posed, curated, and approved for senior residents by the AIR-Pro Series Board. The blogs relate to the following questions:

  1. Advanced ventilatory management
  2. Submassive pulmonary embolism management
  3. Hypotensive intubation
  4. End of life discussion

AIR Stamp of Approval and Honorable Mentions

In an effort to truly emphasize the highest quality posts, we have 2 subsets of recommended resources. The AIR-Pro stamp of approval will only be given to posts scoring above a strict scoring cut-off of ≥28 points (out of 35 total), based on our AIR-Pro scoring instrument, which is slightly different from our original AIR Series scoring instrument. The other subset is for “Honorable Mention” posts. These posts have been flagged by and agreed upon by AIR-Pro Board members as worthwhile, accurate, unbiased and useful to senior residents. Only the posts with the AIR-Pro stamp of approval will be part of the quiz needed to obtain III credit. To decrease the repetitive nature of posts relating to these advanced concepts, we did not always include every post found that met the score of ≥28 points.

Take the quiz at ALiEMU

ALiEMU AIR-Pro Critical Care (Part 2) block quiz

Interested in taking the quiz for fun or asynchronous (Individualized Interactive Instruction) credit? Please go to the above link. You will need to create a one-time login account if you haven’t already.

Highlighted AIR-Pro posts

Article TitleAuthorDateLinkTitle
Taking ownership of the ventilatorEvan Miller & Maxim DzebaApril 21, 2016EM Docs: Ventilator managementAIR-PRO
Mechanical ventilation in ARDS: 2014 updateMatthew HoffmanMay 12, 2014PulmCCM: Mechanical VentilationAIR-PRO
Thrombolysis for submassive pulmonary embolismChris NicksonJan 7, 2016LITFL: Thrombolysis for submassive PEAIR-PRO
Controversies of thrombolytics for pulmonary embolismBrit LongMay 28, 2016EM Docs: Controversies in thrombolyticsAIR-PRO
How to intubate a patient with hypotensionScott WeingartAug 5, 2013EM Crit: Hemodynamic killsAIR-PRO
Intubating the critically ill patientZach RadwineJan 6, 2014EM Docs: Intubating the critically illAIR-PRO
DNR means do not treat... and other end of life care mythsAshley ShrevesAug 2014EP Monthly: DNR means do not treatAIR-PRO
Dominating the vent: Part 1Scott WeingartMay 24, 2010EM Crit: Dominating the vent (1)Honorable Mention
Dominating the vent: Part 2Scott WeingartJune 1, 2010EM Crit: Dominating the vent (2)Honorable Mention
Pulmonary embolism treatment optionsScott Weingart & Oren FriedmanJuly 14, 2014EM Crit: Pulmonary Embolism Honorable Mention
Critical care palliation Scott Weingart & Ashley ShrevesFeb 18, 2013 EM Crit: Critical care palliation Honorable Mention

 

If you have any questions or comments, please contact us!

Author information

Fareen Zaver, MD

Fareen Zaver, MD

Chief Resident
Department of Emergency Medicine
George Washington University

The post AIR-Pro Series: Critical Care (part 2) Module appeared first on ALiEM.

AIR Series and AIR-Pro Series are moving to ALiEMU!

AliEMU-Favicon-Turqouise-textThe ALiEM Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) and AIR-Pro series are moving from this ALiEM blog, which uses embedded Google Forms for quizzes into our custom learning management system called ALiEMU. ALiEMU will be our one-stop system for asynchronous learning. For U.S. EM residency programs, this will also serve as a central repository for Individualized Interactive Instruction (III) resources for asynchronous conference credit. The cornerstone e-course already on ALiEMU is CAPSULES — a comprehensive EM pharmacology curriculum, whose authorship and editorial team is led by Dr. Bryan Hayes.

For the AIR and AIR-Pro series, we have over 80 U.S. EM residency programs, 4 international EM programs, and 1 PA program using either or both of these series as a part of their didactic curriculum. With over one year’s worth of educational content, we now want to make the user experience more friendly such that one can longitudinally track progress, and programs and easily report their residents’ total III hours for the academic year to the Residency Review Committee (RRC).

What is Capsules?

Thanks to the ALiEM Capsules Series [background information about the series], which was the premiere longitudinal course to launch ALiEMU in 2015, we have worked out many of the kinks and start-up problems of new platforms. The Capsules series, led by Dr. Bryan Hayes, features an all-star team of pharmacists and EM faculty authoring key chapters and quizzes on all things related to EM pharmacology.

Capsules Screenshot

Create an account on ALiEMU

ALiEMU Register

  • Go to the AIR or AIR-Pro home page.
  • View the desired course module and take the corresponding quizzes for course completion.

AIR sample module

Detailed guides on navigating ALiEMU

Specific information for the PD or APD

  • We now have 3 longitudinal series available for III credit: AIR, AIR-Pro, and Capsules
  • Request “Educator Dashboard” access by clicking on the checkbox when registering. Only the following people will be granted access:
    • PDs
    • APDs
    • Program coordinators
    • PD-approved administrative assistants
    • PD-approved Chief Residents who specifically working on resident remediation  will be granted access.
  • As your residents complete the AIR, AIR-Pro, and Capsules modules, your Educator Dashboard will be updated in real-time. Your Dashboard allows you to view your entire program’s progress on the website. This can be filtered by DATE or by SERIES for a more limited view.
  • Tracking III hours: For a quick overview and searching for a particular person or timeframe, it is easiest to use the Educator Dashboard. To count and report III hours, it is best to export the CSV file to sort and collate the data to your program’s needs.

 

Date Filter

 

Series-Block filter

 

 

Frequently asked questions about the AIR and AIR-Pro Series moving to ALiEMU

  1. As a resident, if I completed an AIR or AIR-Pro module before today (July 1, 2016) using the Google Forms quiz, how can my (A)PD access my data?
    • Your (A)PD still access to the master Google spreadsheet.
    • Contact us, if you are an (A)PD and need your login.
  2. How do I contact someone if I encounter a bug or need help with ALiEMU issues?
  3. If am a resident, can I request Educator Dashboard access?
    • Because the Dashboard has data of your fellow residents, we are currently not granting access, unless your PD specifically requests that we grant you access.
  4. Can I get a certificate for completing each AIR or AIR-Pro course?
    • At the end of each course, you are given the option to print or download your certificate (PDF).

Certificate

 

Acknowledgements

A huge thank-you and virtual standing ovation for the ALiEMU development team of Derek Sifford (Chief Technical Officer), Dr. Chris Gaafary (Chief of Development and Design) and Dr. Jonathan Bronner (Education Design Officer) who worked tirelessly for weeks to make ALiEMU and the AIR/AIR-Pro Series transition a reality. Watching them work and collaborate virtually at a startup-like pace was 99% inspiring and 1% frightening to witness the power of digital technologies.

ALiEMU-Core-team

Also thank-you to Dr. Andy Grock and Dr. Fareen Zaver for facilitating the move of their AIR Series and AIR-Pro Series, respectively. And lastly, thank you to the Council of EM Residency Directors for funding our efforts to create the custom Educator Dashboard for enhanced III tracking.

 

The ALiEMU Team Members

You can see our entire 50+ member team on ALiEMU’s Our Teams page.

Author information

Michelle Lin, MD

ALiEM Editor-in-Chief
Academy Endowed Chair of EM Education
Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine
University of California, San Francisco

The post AIR Series and AIR-Pro Series are moving to ALiEMU! appeared first on ALiEM.