1) Great overview of many systemic issues which funnel patients to emergency departments, by Annals of Emergency Medicine Editor in Chief Mike Callaham*:
The Prudent Layperson’s Complicated and Uncertain Road to Urgent Care
2) We can't discern low acuity diagnoses from chief complaints, by Maria Raven, Robert Lowe, Judith Maselli, and Renee Hsia in JAMA:
Comparison of Presenting Complaint vs Discharge Diagnosis for Identifying “ Nonemergency” Emergency Department Visits
3) Low acuity ED visits is just not where the money is, by Peter Smulowitz, Leah Honigman and Bruce Landon, in Annals of EM:
A novel approach to identifying targets for cost reduction in the emergency department.
4) EDs aren't overcrowded because of low acuity patients; we are busy because of boarding -- patients we have seen & admitted in the ED and are waiting for their inpatient beds. (tons on this, here's one on how boarding-> crowding in Annals by Brent Asplin et al A conceptual model of emergency department crowding, and 2 of my blog posts 4A) here and 4B) here).
5) And for those who suggest higher patient copays for low acuity ED visits, the famous RAND HIE, which shows that patients who have to spend more out of pocket decrease *all* care, both appropriate & inappropriate care (which isn't surprising, given Raven's study, above):
Here are a few studies that show that retail clinics tend to *increase* rather than decrease overall utilization (suggesting something like supply induced demand) and fail to lower (and probably increase!) ED use:
6) Why Retail Clinics Do Not Substitute for Emergency Department Visits and What This Means for Value-Based Care by Jesse Pines in Annals
7) Retail Clinic Visits For Low-Acuity Conditions Increase Utilization And Spending by J Scott Ashwood, Martin Gaynor, Claude Setodji, Rachel Reid, Ellerie Weber, and Ateev Mehrotra in Health Affairs. From what I hear from people who run EDs which opened urgent cares etc, the same holds true, but I don't have great data on that.
*COI: I am Social Media Editor for Annals which makes Mike my boss.