Senior Report 8.22

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Case Discussion by Eric Malone, MD

Visual Stimulus Case:

A 26 year old male with a past medical history of schizophrenia presents after jumping out of a second story window in a possible suicide attempt. He was brought to the emergency department on petition and was originally taken to the crisis center, where, in addition to intramuscular haloperidol and lorazepam, he also received a foot X-ray, which is provided below.

He has no other injuries and complains only of right foot pain. Examination shows deformity of the dorsal aspect of the right foot with tenderness and soft tissue edema over the midfoot. Range of motion in the right ankle is intact, as are peripheral pulses and neurologic function.

8.2228.22

 

Questions:

  1. Based on the above X-ray, which of the following is the most appropriate course of management:

A. Order more haloperidol and lorazepam because the patient is clearly malingering and there is nothing wrong with his foot.

B. Posterior mold right leg splint (with stirrups), non-weight bearing on the right leg, crutches, adequate analgesia and rapid orthopedic outpatient follow up (following completion of psychiatric evaluation)

C. Pain control, preoperative laboratory studies, and emergency department orthopedic consultation

D. Post-op shoe, pain control, PRN orthopedic or podiatric follow up.

 

  1. In addition to the findings that you identified on the above x-ray, which of the following other injuries is also likely present:

A. Occult talar dome fracture

B. Disruption of the ligamentous structure of the midfoot at the tarsometatarsal joint

C. Disruption of the vascular supply of the fifth metatarsal head

D. Calcaneal tendon rupture

 

  1. Failure to diagnose and appropriately manage this injury pattern is most commonly associated with which of the following:

A. Midfoot instability and collapse, severe arthritis

B. Avascular necrosis of the fifth metatarsal head

C. Atrophic degeneration of musculature of the dorsal foot including extensor digitorum brevis

D. Fracture non-union


Filed under: Senior Report

Senior Report 8.21

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Case Presentation by Dr. Sean Michael, DO

Visual Stimulus Case:

A 59-year-old man with COPD presents with acute dyspnea. His breath sounds are nearly inaudible. He is tripoding with accessory muscle use and suprasternal retractions. Temperature is 37.7°C, heart rate 112, respiratory rate 36, blood pressure 168/92, and oxygen saturation 89% on 2 liters via nasal cannula. Glucocorticoids and nebulized bronchodilators are administered. Bedside thoracic ultrasound is performed and demonstrates the following M-mode image in the right second intercostal space:

8.21

Questions: 

  1. The most likely etiology of the ultrasonographic finding above is:

A. Emphysematous bulla or apical bleb

B. Iatrogenic pneumothorax

C. Lobar pneumonia

D. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax

 

Additional images are obtained of the right chest at the level of the fifth intercostal space:

 

8.211

 

 

  1. Given the new information obtained in this image, which of the following is the best course of action:

A. CT Thorax

B. Intravenous antibiotics

C. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation

D. Tube thoracostomy

 

  1. The findings in the second ultrasound image serve mostly to:

A. Increase diagnostic sensitivity (ie. have a high negative predictive value)

B. Increase diagnostic specificity (ie. have a high positive predictive value)

C. Predict a decreased risk of mortality

D. Predict an increased risk of treatment failure


Filed under: Senior Report, Uncategorized

Intern Report 8.20

internreport

Case Presentation by Khoa Nguyen, MD

CC: “fever and runny nose”

 

HPI: 9-day-old full term female born via C-section who presents with cough, rhinorrhea, and tactile fever. Patient’s mother stated that the patient had rhinorrhea 3 days ago who then developed a cough the following day. The mother then felt that the patient was warm in the back but did not measure any temperature. The patient was not given any anti-pyretic or antibiotics. There had been green discharges from the eyes. Patient had 2 episodes of non-bloody nonbilious emesis that looked like her feeds. Patient had been sleeping more than normal. On further questioning, the patient’s mother had GBS and Chlamydia with this pregnancy and had HSV during the previous pregnancy.   There were no changes in the number of wet diapers and no changes in PO intake.

 

ROS:

Constitutional: positive for tactile fever

HEENT: positive for rhinorrhea, green discharges from eyes, and congestion

CV: neg

Pulmonary: positive for coughing

GI: positive for 2 episodes of NBNB emesis. No changes in appetite and PO intake.

GU: no change in number of wet diapers

The rest of the ROS were negative

 

PMH/PSH: none

Allergies: NKDA

Immunizations: UTD

Birth history: 39 wks, repeat c-section

Family history: Mother was treated for GBS and chlamydia with this pregnancy

 

Physical Exam:

Vital signs: Temperature 37, HR 160, RR 30, BP 67/41, 98% on RA

General: patient is alert and responsive to touch

HEENT: NC/AT, anterior fontanelle is open, soft, and flat. There is bilateral eye discharge with crusting. No chemosis. Eyelids appear normal. TMs are clear. Oropharynx within normal limits

Neck: supple

CV: RRR, S1 S2, no notable murmurs

Lung: Clear to auscultation bilaterally

GI: soft, nontender, non distended, no masses

MSK: moving all extremities

Skin: no rashes, bruising

Neuro: normal moro, rooting, grasp

 

Questions:

  1. What is the workup for this patient?

A. Patient does not need a workup.

B. Full sepsis workup: LP, CBC, CXR, LP, UA with culture, blood culture, RSV/Flu.

C. UA with culture, CBC, Chest x-ray

D. Rapid Viral antigen testing

 

  1. What is the management?

A. PO challenge and discharge home after reassuring the mother that this is likely a viral infection and that she needs to follow-up with PMD.

B. Ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and acyclovir

C. Ampicillin and acyclovir

D. Ampicillin, cefotaxime, and acyclovir

 

  1. Which of the following is true?

A. Management of pediatric fever is the same throughout all ages.

B. Defervescence after acetaminophen administration has been shown to reliably exclude bacteremia in children of any ages.

C. The absence of fever does not eliminate the possibility of serious bacterial illness.

D. A thorough history and physical exam can exclude a serious bacterial illness in a patient less than 28 days old.


Filed under: Uncategorized

Senior Report 8.19

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 Case Presentation by Laura Smylie, MD

A 14 year old girl who presents with nausea and vomiting for one day and an abrupt onset of chest pain.
Vitals: BP 100/67, HR 121, RR 25, Temp 36.7, 100% on room air.

1  2

 

Questions:
1. What is the diagnosis based upon the above x-rays?
a) Foreign body
b) Pneumothorax
c)Pneumomediastinum
d)Apical pneumonia

2. What is the likely etiology of the radiographic finding?
a) alveolar rupture secondary to forceful retching
b) esophageal rupture secondary to forceful retching
c) acute PE
d) no abnormality on chest x ray.

3. What is the most appropriate initial management of this patient?
a) place on continuous pulse oximetry, place a left sided chest tube
b) place on continuous pulse oximetry, 4mg ondansetron, NPO.
c) place on a continuous cardiac monitor, start heparin drip, consult cardiology.
d) send blood cultures, start antibiotics, encourage PO intake.


Filed under: Senior Report

Senior Report 8.18

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 Case Discussion by Erin Ge, MD

 

CC: “Nausea”

HPI:

This is an 80 year old female who presents with nausea. She states she has been feeling nauseated and generally unwell for the past week. She denies any significant abdominal pain, vomiting or diarrhea. She has not had any fevers or chills. She reports feeling like she has no energy. She has been refusing to eat. Her family states she has seemed progressively more confused and has been “seeing double”. Today, she started complaining of some episodes of “heart racing” so her family brought her in for evaluation. She denies chest pain or shortness of breath.

ROS:

General: Positive for generalized weakness

Neurological: Positive for confusion

Ear, Nose and Throat: No congestion

Eyes: Positive for diplopia

Cardiovascular: Positive for palpitations

Pulmonary: No shortness of breath

Abdomen: See HPI

Genitourinary: No polyuria

Musculoskeletal: No back pain

Skin: No rashes

 

Past Medical History: Congestive heart failure, hypertension, coronary artery disease

Past Surgical History: Cardiac catheterization, total hysterectomy

Family History: Hypertension

Social History: Lives with her daughter, history of tobacco use but quit over 20 years ago, denies alcohol or illicit drug use

Medications: Aspirin, Lisinopril, Lasix, digoxin, omeprazole

Allergies: NKDA

 

Physical Exam:

General: Overweight, nontoxic

Vitals: Blood pressure 125/92, heart rate 80, respiratory rate 16, temperature 36.8, pulse oximetry 98% on room air

HENT: Normocephalic, atraumatic, mucous membranes moist, trachea midline

Eyes: Sclerae noninjected and nonicteric, pupils 3mm, equal, round and reactive to light, EOMI

Cardiovascular: rate and rhythm regular, normal S1, S2, no murmurs, no JVD, 1+ bilateral lower extremity edema

Respiratory: Clear to auscultation bilaterally with good air entry and equal chest rise

Gastrointestinal: Soft, nontender, non distended, no rebound tenderness, negative Murphy sign, no CVA tenderness

Musculoskeletal: No obvious deformities, extremities nontender, moves all extremities equally

Skin: No erythema, rashes or ulcerations

Neurologic: Alert, oriented x 3, responds slowly, no facial asymmetry, no speech dysarthria, sensation intact to light touch bilateral upper and lower extremities, 5/5 strength bilateral upper and lower extremities

 

EKG:

8.18

 

Laboratory Studies:

CBG – 97

CBC:

5.1           12.0        122

36.0

BMP:

138         97            24            103

6.0           20            2.1

Troponin <0.017

SDS: neg

UDS: neg

Digoxin level: 4.0 ng/mL (nml 0.5-2.0)

 

Questions:

1. In the initial management of an acute digoxin overdose, which of the following should be considered:

A. Gastric lavage

B. Emergent dialysis

C. Activated charcoal

D. High dose insulin

 

2. You are informed by nursing staff that the patient is now tachycardic and a new EKG is obtained:

8.181

What next intervention is indicated?

A. Lidocaine

B. Transvenous pacing

C. Quinidine

D. Procainamide

 

3. What is the appropriate treatment for this patient’s hyperkalemia?

A. Insulin/glucose, sodium bicarbonate, calcium gluconate and kayexalate

B. Fab fragments

C. Emergent dialysis

D. Isotonic fluid hydration

 


Filed under: Uncategorized

Intern Report 8.17

internreport

Case Presented by Jeff Butler, MD

Chief Complaint: abdominal pain, diarrhea, weakness

HPI: An otherwise healthy 6yo boy presents with three days of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. His symptoms started with nausea and vomiting, and were followed by fever and epigastric, cramping abdominal pain. By Day 2 of his illness he was having frequent loose stools up to 15 times per day. The mother decided to bring the child in after he developed some weakness and difficulty walking prior to arrival. The vomiting occurred around 2-4 times per day and was characterized as nonbloody and nonbilious. There was also no blood noted in the stool. The child has had a poor appetite in the last two days and has been refusing meals after two episodes of post-prandial emesis. The mother thinks the child may have been urinating less frequently since this morning. The fever is being treated with alternating motrin and Tylenol last given 2 hours prior to arrival. The child had multiple sick contacts with similar symptoms at daycare and there was no history of recent travel.

ROS:
Constitution: positive for fevers, negative for weight change
HEENT: negative for ear pain, sore throat
Cardiac: negative for chest pain, palpitations
Pulm: negative for wheezing, cough
GI: positive for abd pain, diarrhea, vomiting
GU: positive for decreased urination
MSK: negative for joint pain, swelling, myalgia, positive for weakness
Neuro: positive for dizziness, HA

PMHX: none

PSHx: none

Allergies: NKDA

Meds: Motrin, Tylenol PRN fever

SocHx: no tobacco use in the home, patient attends school and daycare, lives with mom, dad, two brothers.

PE:
Vitals: T37.1, HR140, BP100/60, R20, SpO2 99% RA
General: Ill-appearing male child sitting on the exam table in mild distress due to weakness
Eyes: PERRL, EOM, no pallor
HENT: Normal tympanic membrane without erythema or purulent drainage, dry oral mucous membranes, neck supple and nontender without LAD
CV: Tachycardic regular rate with normal hearts sounds, pulses 2+ at radial and dorsalis pedis bilaterally, cap refill 2 seconds
Pulm: Normal work of breathing with clear breath sounds bilaterally
Abd: Soft, mildly tender to palpation over epigastrium, no rebound tenderness or guarding, normoactive bowel sounds
Skin: No rashes, bruises, or petechiae
Neuro: Normal mentation, no facial droop, tongue midleine, smiles symmetrically, 4/5 strength with hip flexion bilaterally, 4/5 strength with leg flexion and extension bilaterally, 5/5 strength otherwise throughout, sensation intact to light touch throughout, no clonus

You begin IV hydration with a 20cc/kg bolus and start weight-based maintenance fluids. Lab tests were ordered as follows:

 Labs:
CBC
WBC- 9.4
Hgb- 13.5
Plts- 278

BMP
Na- 134
Cl- 105
K- 1.9
HCO3- 19
BUN- 20
Cr- 1.1
Glu- 89

Questions:
Q1. Which of the following is a spurious cause of hypokalemia?
A) Recent fluid administration in the IV site
B) Sample deterioration
C) Hemolysis
D) Cold storage

Q2. What EKG finding can be found with hypokalemia?
A) Peaked T waves
B) U waves
C) J waves
D) QRS prolongation

Q3. What is the best method for replacing this patient’s electrolyte abnormalities?
A) No replacement needed
B) PO potassium
C) IV potassium
D) Yes, supplement with magnesium and IV potassium

Bonus Question:
Q4. What is the most likely acid-base disorder this patient will have? Maybe make this the bonus questions but clinically not as important as the next question
A) Respiratory acidosis
B) Metabolic alkalosis
C) AG metabolic acidosis
D) NAG metabolic acidosis


Filed under: Intern Report